# Category: x86

# 1.4 Boolean Expressions

# 1.3.3 Integer Storage Sizes

• One kilobyte is equal to 210, or 1024 bytes.

• One megabyte (1 MByte) is equal to 220, or 1,048,576 bytes.

• One gigabyte (1 GByte) is equal to 230, or 10243, or 1,073,741,824 bytes.

• One terabyte (1 TByte) is equal to 240, or 10244, or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes.

• One petabyte is equal to 250, or 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes.

• One exabyte is equal to 260, or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes.

• One zettabyte is equal to 270 bytes.

• One yottabyte is equal to 280 bytes

# 1.3.8 Character Storage

- A binary integer is an integer stored in memory in its raw format, ready to be used in a calculation. Binary integers are stored in multiples of 8 bits (such as 8, 16, 32, or 64).

# 1.2 Virtual Machine Concept

- This is a model for explaining how computers work.
- Virtual Machine: A software program that
**emulates**functions of another physical/virtual computer.

- Let VM0 run L0 (Language 0) which is lover level than L1 run by VM1
- VM1 will
**translate (compile) or interpret (interpreter)**a higher level simpler language and hand it off to VM0 - If VM1 is still too complicated for human use VM2 is created even more
**abstraction**

- This leads us to this model for the levels of abstraction
- Note: ISA=Machine Code