Category: x86

1.3.3 Integer Storage Sizes


These are in terms of bits.

One kilobyte is equal to 210, or 1024 bytes.
One megabyte (1 MByte) is equal to 220, or 1,048,576 bytes.
One gigabyte (1 GByte) is equal to 230, or 10243, or 1,073,741,824 bytes.
One terabyte (1 TByte) is equal to 240, or 10244, or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes.
One petabyte is equal to 250, or 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes.
One exabyte is equal to 260, or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes.
One zettabyte is equal to 270 bytes.
One yottabyte is equal to 280 bytes

1.3.8 Character Storage


  • A binary integer is an integer stored in memory in its raw format, ready to be used in a calculation. Binary integers are stored in multiples of 8 bits (such as 8, 16, 32, or 64).

1.2 Virtual Machine Concept

  • This is a model for explaining how computers work.
  • Virtual Machine: A software program that emulates functions of another physical/virtual computer.


  • Let VM0 run L0 (Language 0) which is lover level than L1 run by VM1
  • VM1 will translate (compile) or interpret (interpreter) a higher level simpler language and hand it off to VM0
  • If VM1 is still too complicated for human use VM2 is created even more abstraction


  • This leads us to this model for the levels of abstraction
    • Note: ISA=Machine Code